Building Applications using CodeIgniter (Part 3) - Helpers

So far in this series we’ve discussed framework/application structure and configuration information. The next thing I always add to new applications is some common helper files I’ve developed and that come in handy in most projects. CodeIgniter (CI) helpers are very flexible tools to assist with common tasks throughout the app. If it doesn’t belong in a controller and is too small for a custom library then a helper might be just what the programmer ordered.

What belongs in a helper?

Something I’ve struggled with in the past is determining when a certain function or process belongs in a helper file and when it would be better off elsewhere. There is no cold hard rule for determining when something belongs in a helper and when it doesn’t but you do need to be aware of the following:

“Unlike most other systems in CodeIgniter, Helpers are not written in an Object Oriented format. They are simple, procedural functions. Each helper function performs one specific task, with no dependence on other functions.” - CI Users Guide

This means that in order to access libraries and models within your helper functions you will need to get a CI instance:

$CI =& get_instance();

With the technicalities out of the way let’s take a look at the 2 helper files I’ve developed: display_helper.php and  flash_helper.php.


A lot can be accomplished with CI’s built in templating but there are still some things that require logic and therefore fit nicely within a helper function. The display_helper.php file holds a number of common HTML display functions that I use throughout my program view files. To see what this file looks like, download an example. The functions in this file are pretty self-explanatory but I will briefly describe what each does below:


The display_error() function displays a properly formatted HTML error message. I have this function setup so it can display 2 types of message: standard and form. When using the form_validation library I use the set_error_delimiter() method to wrap my error messages in list item tags and then display form error messages as unordered lists. So, I can easily accomplish displaying both types of messages using this function just by passing some variables.


This function just displays a properly formatted HTML message. This doesn’t necessarily need to be in a helper function because it’s so simple. But, the nice thing about having it here is if I ever decide to change the format of my messages I just need to come here in one place and make the update. So it consolidates my code nicely… but the same could probably be accomplished by using more generic CSS ID names.


You should always identify required fields on your forms so users know what they need to fill in and what can be left blank. I’ve put the display of this flag in a helper function again to consolidate my code. As with the display_msg() function, if I ever decide to change my required field flag I just need to come to this one place and change it instead of going into all my view files and going a find and replace.


JavaScript confirmation messages come in handy when you want to check with a user to make sure they are sure of something before you do it. You can accomplish the same confirmation by writing more PHP but that takes more work. The js_confirm() function, when used with the default CI URL helper anchor() function, displays a browser pop-up message with whatever text I pass to the function. If I’m in a hurry and don’t provide a message the function just returns a generic “Are you sure?” message.

Your display_helper file might look much different than mine, this is just an example of how I use it. But you want to be on the look out while your coding for repetition and little details here and there that might be changing down the road. If you can consolidate those things in a helper file you will end up saving a lot of time updating down the road.


CI added flashdata to it’s session library a few versions back and I for one was happy to see it. Flashdata allows you to pass messages for display between pages.  Simple status messages like “record added” or “record not found” can be placed in a flashdata variable and then displayed after the user is redirected to another page. A very handy tool for letting your users know the results of their actions.

While I do like this functionality, writing $this->session->set_flashdata(‘item’, ‘value’) and $this->session->flashdata(‘item’) every time I need to set or get something is a lot of typing. So the flash_helper is a pair of wrapper functions that handle the job of setting and displaying flash messages for me. To see what this file looks like, download an example.


The display_flash() function displays a selected flash message in a view file. Simply provide the name of the flash variable and it will display it in a properly formatted HTML div.


This function sets a flash variable with a value I specify. Since I use flash variables for a lot of different messages, which I may need to format differently, I also use this function to store some formatting data along with the message. That way when I display the message it is automatically displayed using the CSS style I intended.

The flash_helper file is based on the same concept that Michael Wales posted about a while back. I would link to the post but I can’t seem to find it anymore.

Last up: Code Templates

That wraps up the 3rd installment of this series. In the next, and final post, I’ll discuss creating code templates to help you maintain consistency between your files.